The Ashcan School and The Eight
While Robert Henri is thought to be the founder of the Ashcan School, the name is a misnomer as there actually was no formal school of art with this name but rather a movement. The work of the artists associated with this movement believed in artistic independence and freedom to exhibit one’s work in non-juried forums. Henri, along with John Sloan, Everett Shinn, George Luks, and George Bellows painted the world around them which also included city scenes, the upper classes and various environments. One of Henri’s most well-known works from this period is Snow in New York.
These artists were at the forefront of the New York art scene at the beginning of the twentieth century, but their manner of painting was overtaken by the progressive art shown at the 1913 International Exhibition of Modern Art.
Snow in New York, 1902
Courtesy National Gallery of Art
Courtesy Robert Henri Museum
Although large salon shows were popular, art had to be submitted to a jury for approval. Robert Henri and his friends united to protest how art was presented to the general public. Each believed the artist had the right to present their work for public approval (or disapproval). They held the “Exhibition of the Eight” at Macbeth Gallery in New York City. The Event drew a larger crowd than the salon show that year and led to more independent shows.
The Eight, a group of American painters who exhibited together only once, in New York City in 1908, but who established one of the main currents in 20th-century American painting. The original Eight included Arthur B. Davies, Ernest Lawson, Maurice Prendergast, George Luks, and William J. Glackens. George Bellows later joined them.
The group’s determination to bring art into closer touch with everyday life greatly influenced the course of American art. Reacting against an American academic and aesthetic tradition that was subservient to European aesthetics, the members of The Eight established their own artistic society in the bustling neighbourhoods of New York and set out to create a native American painting. Luks, Sloan, Glackens, and Shinn worked as newspaper illustrator-cartoonists. They and the four other artists used the teeming life they found in New York as the subject of their art, presenting unidealized views of city life in the saloons, tenements, pool halls, and slums.
Some members of The Eight adopted a rough, realistic style, utilizing flashy brushwork on a dark ground in a manner reminiscent of Édouard Manet, Gustave Courbet, and the German Düsseldorf school. Other members took different directions: Prendergast utilized the decorative patterns of colour he found in the work of the French Nabi group in his translations of the American landscape; Davies painted dreamy, twilight scenes evolved from lyrical allegories rather than from contemporary life; Lawson adopted a style that was lyrically atmospheric. In spite of such deviations in style, the artists banded together for a group show in 1908 at the Macbeth Gallery, organizing it as a direct reaction against slights by the National Academy of Design. The show was well-attended but received mixed reviews: while some critics admired the daring of the work, more were shocked by what they saw as poor draftsmanship and dreary subject matter.
A few years after their only joint exhibition, the eight painters were absorbed into a larger group called the Ashcan School, which included Bellows, Edward Hopper, Glenn Coleman, Eugene Higgins, and Jerome Myers. The Ashcan school, whose principles and aims were similar to those of The Eight, further paved the way for the development of a vital and native trend in American painting of the 20th century.